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DBI::FAQ(3)    User Contributed Perl Documentation    DBI::FAQ(3)

       DBI::FAQ -- The Frequently Asked Questions for the Perl5
       Database Interface

           perldoc DBI::FAQ

       This document is currently at version 0.38, as of February
       8th, 2000.

       This document serves to answer the most frequently asked
       questions on both the DBI Mailing Lists and personally to
       members of the DBI development team.

Basic Information & Information Sources
       1.1 What is DBI, DBperl, Oraperl and *perl?

       To quote Tim Bunce, the architect and author of DBI:

           ``DBI is a database access Application Programming Interface (API)
             for the Perl Language. The DBI API Specification defines a set
             of functions, variables and conventions that provide a consistent
             database interface independant of the actual database being used.''

       In simple language, the DBI interface allows users to
       access multiple database types transparently. So, if you
       connecting to an Oracle, Informix, mSQL, Sybase or what-
       ever database, you don't need to know the underlying
       mechanics of the 3GL layer. The API defined by DBI will
       work on all these database types.

       A similar benefit is gained by the ability to connect to
       two different databases of different vendor within the one
       perl script, ie, I want to read data from an Oracle
       database and insert it back into an Informix database all
       within one program. The DBI layer allows you to do this
       simply and powerfully.

       DBperl is the old name for the interface specification.
       It's usually now used to denote perl4 modules on database
       interfacing, such as, oraperl, isqlperl, ingperl and so
       on. These interfaces didn't have a standard API and are
       generally not supported.

       Here's a list of DBperl modules, their corresponding DBI
       counterparts and support information. Please note, the
       author's listed here generally do not maintain the DBI
       module for the same database. These email addresses are
       unverified and should only be used for queries concerning
       the perl4 modules listed below. DBI driver queries should
       be directed to the dbi-users mailing list.

           Module Name Database Required   Author          DBI
           ----------- -----------------   ------          ---
           Sybperl     Sybase              Michael Peppler DBD::Sybase
           Oraperl     Oracle 6 & 7        Kevin Stock     DBD::Oracle
           Ingperl     Ingres              Tim Bunce &     DBD::Ingres
                                           Ted Lemon
           Interperl   Interbase           Buzz Moschetti  DBD::Interbase
           Uniperl     Unify 5.0           Rick Wargo      None
           Pgperl      Postgres            Igor Metz       DBD::Pg
           Btreeperl   NDBM                John Conover    SDBM?
           Ctreeperl   C-Tree              John Conover    None
           Cisamperl   Informix C-ISAM     Mathias Koerber None
           Duaperl     X.500 Directory     Eric Douglas    None
                       User Agent

       However, some DBI modules have DBperl emulation layers,
       so, DBD::Oracle comes with an Oraperl emulation layer,
       which allows you to run legacy oraperl scripts without
       modification. The emulation layer translates the oraperl
       API calls into DBI calls and executes them through the DBI

       Here's a table of emulation layer information:

           Module                  Emulation Layer     Status
           ------          ---------------     ------
           DBD::Oracle     Oraperl             Complete
           DBD::Informix   Isqlperl            Under development
           DBD::Ingres     Ingperl             Complete?
           DBD::Sybase     Sybperl             Working? ( Needs verification )
           DBD::mSQL       Msqlperl            Experimentally released with

       The Msqlperl emulation is a special case. Msqlperl is a
       perl5 driver for mSQL databases, but does not conform to
       the DBI Specification. It's use is being deprecated in
       favour of DBD::mSQL. Msqlperl may be downloaded from CPAN


       1.2. Where can I get it from?

       The Comprehensive Perl Archive Network resources should be
       used for retrieving up-to-date versions of the DBI and
       drivers. CPAN may be accessed via Tom Christiansen's
       splendid CPAN multiplexer program located at:


       For more specific version information and exact URLs of
       drivers, please see the DBI drivers list and the DBI mod-
       ule pages which can be found on:


       This list is automatically generated on a nightly basis
       from CPAN and should be up-to-date.

       1.3. Where can I get more information?

       There are a few information sources on DBI.

       "Programming the Perl DBI"
           "Programming the Perl DBI" is the official book on the
           DBI written by Alligator Descartes and Tim Bunce and
           published by O'Reilly & Associates.  The book was
           released on February 9th, 2000.

           The table of contents is:

               1. Introduction
                   From Mainframes to Workstations
                   DBI in the Real World
                   A Historical Interlude and Standing Stones
               2. Basic Non-DBI Databases
                   Storage Managers and Layers
                   Query Languages and Data Functions
                   Standing Stones and the Sample Database
                   Flat-File Databases
                   Putting Complex Data into Flat Files
                   Concurrent Database Access and Locking
                   DBM Files and the Berkeley Database Manager
                   The MLDBM Module
               3. SQL and Relational Databases
                   The Relational Database Methodology
                   Datatypes and NULL Values
                   Querying Data
                   Modifying Data Within Tables
                   Creating and Destroying Tables
               4. Programming with the DBI
                   DBI Architecture
                   Data Source Names
                   Connection and Disconnection
                   Error Handling
                   Utility Methods and Functions
               5. Interacting with the Database
                   Issuing Simple Queries
                   Executing Non-SELECT Statements
                   Binding Parameters to Statements
                   Binding Output Columns
                   do() Versus prepare()
                   Atomic and Batch Fetching
               6. Advanced DBI
                   Handle Attributes and Metadata
                   Handling LONG/LOB Data
                   Transactions, Locking, and Isolation
               7. ODBC and the DBI
                   ODBC -- Embraced and Extended
                   DBI -- Thrashed and Mutated
                   The Nuts and Bolts of ODBC
                   ODBC from Perl
                   The Marriage of DBI and ODBC
                   Questions and Choices
                   Moving Between Win32::ODBC and the DBI
                   And What About ADO?
               8. DBI Shell and Database Proxying
                   dbish -- The DBI Shell
                   Database Proxying
               A. DBI Specification
               B. Driver and Database Characteristics
               C. ASLaN Sacred Site Charter

           The book should be available from all good bookshops
           and can be ordered online either via O'Reilly &


           or Amazon


       POD documentation
           PODs are chunks of documentation usually embedded
           within perl programs that document the code ``in
           place'', providing a useful resource for programmers
           and users of modules. POD for DBI and drivers is
           beginning to become more commonplace, and documenta-
           tion for these modules can be read with the "perldoc"
           program included with Perl.

           The DBI Specification
               The POD for the DBI Specification can be read with

                   perldoc DBI

               command. The Specification also forms Appendix A
               of "Programming the Perl DBI".

               Users of the Oraperl emulation layer bundled with
               DBD::Oracle, may read up on how to program with
               the Oraperl interface by typing:

                   perldoc Oraperl

               This will produce an updated copy of the original
               oraperl man page written by Kevin Stock for perl4.
               The oraperl API is fully listed and described

               Users of the DBD modules may read about some of
               the private functions and quirks of that driver by


               For example, the DBD::mSQL driver is bundled with
               driver-specific documentation that can be accessed
               by typing

                   perldoc DBD::mSQL

           Frequently Asked Questions
               This document, the Frequently Asked Questions is
               also available as POD documentation! You can read
               this on your own system by typing:

                   perldoc DBI::FAQ

               This may be more convenient to persons not perma-
               nently, or conveniently, connected to the Inter-
               net. The DBI::FAQ module should be downloaded and
               installed for the more up-to-date version.

               The version of DBI::FAQ shipped with the "DBI"
               module may be slightly out of date.

           POD in general
               Information on writing POD, and on the philosophy
               of POD in general, can be read by typing:

                   perldoc perlpod

               Users with the Tk module installed may be inter-
               ested to learn there is a Tk-based POD reader
               available called "tkpod", which formats POD in a
               convenient and readable way. This is available via
               CPAN as the module called Tk::POD and is highly

       Driver and Database Characteristics
           The driver summaries that were produced for Appendix B
           of "Programming the Perl DBI" are available online at:


           in the driver information table. These summaries con-
           tain standardised information on each driver and
           database which should aid you in selecting a database
           to use. It will also inform you quickly of any issues
           within drivers or whether a driver is not fully com-
           pliant with the DBI Specification.

       Rambles, Tidbits and Observations

           There are a series of occasional rambles from various
           people on the DBI mailing lists who, in an attempt to
           clear up a simple point, end up drafting fairly com-
           prehensive documents. These are quite often varying in
           quality, but do provide some insights into the work-
           ings of the interfaces.

           A list of articles discussing the DBI can be found on
           the DBI WWW page at:


           These articles are of varying quality and age, from
           the original Perl Journal article written by Alligator
           and Tim, to more recent debacles published online from

       README files
           The README files included with each driver occasion-
           ally contains some useful information ( no, really! )
           that may be pertinent to the user.  Please read them.
           It makes our worthless existences more bearable. These
           can all be read from the main DBI WWW page at:


       Mailing Lists
           There are three mailing lists for DBI:

                    -- for announcements, very low traffic
                       -- general user support
                         -- for driver developers (no user support)

           For information on how to subscribe, set digest mode
           etc, and unsubscribe, send an email message (the con-
           tent will be ignored) to:


       Mailing List Archives
           US Mailing List Archives

               Searchable hypermail archives of the three mailing
               lists, and some of the much older traffic have
               been set up for users to browse.

           European Mailing List Archives

               As per the US archive above.

Compilation Problems
       2.1. Compilation problems or "It fails the test!"

       First off, consult the README for that driver in case
       there is useful information about the problem. It may be a
       known problem for your given architecture and operating
       system or database. You can check the README files for
       each driver in advance online at:


       If it's a known problem, you'll probably have to wait till
       it gets fixed. If you're really needing it fixed, try the

       Attempt to fix it yourself
           This technique is generally not recommended to the
           faint-hearted.  If you do think you have managed to
           fix it, then, send a patch file ( context diff ) to
           the author with an explanation of:

           ·   What the problem was, and test cases, if possible.

           ·   What you needed to do to fix it. Please make sure
               you mention everything.

           ·   Platform information, database version, perl ver-
               sion, module version and DBI version.

       Email the author Do NOT whinge!
           Please email the address listed in the WWW pages for
           whichever driver you are having problems with. Do not
           directly email the author at a known address unless it
           corresponds with the one listed.

           We tend to have real jobs to do, and we do read the
           mailing lists for problems. Besides, we may not have
           access to insert your favourite brain-damaged plat-
           form here> and couldn't be of any assistance anyway!
           Apologies for sounding harsh, but that's the way of

           However, you might catch one of these creative genii
           at 3am when we're doing this sort of stuff anyway, and
           get a patch within 5 minutes. The atmosphere in the
           DBI circle is that we do appreciate the users'
           problems, since we work in similar environments.

           If you are planning to email the author, please fur-
           nish as much information as possible, ie:

           ·   ALL the information asked for in the README file
               in the problematic module. And we mean ALL of it.
               We don't put lines like that in documentation for
               the good of our health, or to meet obscure README
               file standards of length.

           ·   If you have a core dump, try the Devel::CoreStack
               module for generating a stack trace from the core
               dump. Send us that too.  Devel::CoreStack can be
               found on CPAN at:


           ·   Module versions, perl version, test cases, operat-
               ing system versions and any other pertinent infor-

           Remember, the more information you send us, the
           quicker we can track problems down. If you send us no
           useful information, expect nothing back.

           Finally, please be aware that some authors, including
           Tim Bunce, specifically request that you do not mail
           them directly. Please respect their wishes and use the
           email addresses listed in the appropriate module
           "README" file.

       Email the dbi-users Mailing List
           It's usually a fairly intelligent idea to cc the mail-
           ing list anyway with problems. The authors all read
           the lists, so you lose nothing by mailing there.

Platform and Driver Issues
       3.1 What's the difference between ODBC and DBI?

       In terms of architecture - not much: Both define program-
       ming interfaces. Both allow multiple drivers to be loaded
       to do the actual work.

       In terms of ease of use - much: The DBI is a 'high level'
       interface that, like Perl itself, strives to make the sim-
       ple things easy while still making the hard things possi-
       ble. The ODBC is a 'low level' interface. All

       Now there's an ODBC driver for the DBI (DBD::ODBC) the
       "What's the difference" question is more usefully
       rephrased as:

       Chapter 7 of "Programming the Perl DBI" covers this topic
       in far more detail and should be consulted.

       3.2 What's the difference between Win32::ODBC and

       The DBI, and thus DBD::ODBC, has a different philosophy
       from the Win32::ODBC module:

       The Win32::ODBC module is a 'thin' layer over the low-
       level ODBC API.  The DBI defines a simpler 'higher level'

       The Win32::ODBC module gives you access to more of the
       ODBC API.  The DBI and DBD::ODBC give you access to only
       the essentials.  (But, unlike Win32::ODBC, the DBI and
       DBD::ODBC do support parameter binding and multiple pre-
       pared statements which reduces the load on the database
       server and can dramatically increase performance.)

       The Win32::ODBC module only works on Win32 systems.  The
       DBI and DBD::ODBC are very portable and work on Win32 and

       The DBI and DBD::ODBC modules are supplied as a standard
       part of the Perl 5.004 binary distribution for Win32 (they
       don't work with the older, non-standard, ActiveState

       Scripts written with the DBI and DBD::ODBC are faster than
       Win32::ODBC on Win32 and are trivially portable to other
       supported database types.

       The DBI offers optional automatic printing or die()ing on
       errors which makes applications simpler and more robust.

       The current DBD::ODBC driver version 0.16 is new and not
       yet fully stable.  A new release is due soon [relative to
       the date of the next TPJ issue :-] and will be much
       improved and offer more ODBC functionality.

       To summarise: The Win32::ODBC module is your best choice
       if you need access to more of the ODBC API than the DBI
       gives you. Otherwise, the DBI and DBD::ODBC combination
       may be your best bet.

       Chapter 7 of "Programming the Perl DBI" covers this topic
       in far more detail and should be consulted.

       3.3 Is DBI supported under Windows 95 / NT platforms?

       Finally, yes! Jeff Urlwin has been working diligently on
       building DBI and DBD::ODBC under these platforms, and,
       with the advent of a stabler perl and a port of MakeMaker,
       the project has come on by great leaps and bounds.

       The DBI and DBD::Oracle Win32 ports are now a standard
       part of DBI, so, downloading DBI of version higher than
       0.81 should work fine as should using the most recent
       DBD::Oracle version.

       3.4 Can I access Microsoft Access or SQL-Server databases
       with DBI?

       Yes, use the DBD::ODBC driver.

       3.5 Is the a DBD for insert favourite database here>?

       Is is listed on the DBI drivers page?


       If not, no. A complete absence of a given database driver
       from that page means that no-one has announced any inten-
       tion to work on it, not that such a driver is impossible
       to write.

       A corollary of the above statement implies that if you see
       an announcement for a driver not on the above page,
       there's a good chance it's not actually a DBI driver, and
       may not conform to the specifications. Therefore, ques-
       tions concerning problems with that code should not really
       be addressed to the DBI Mailing Lists.

       3.6 What's DBM? And why should I use DBI instead?

       Extracted from ``DBI - The Database Interface for Perl

           ``UNIX was originally blessed with simple file-based ``databases'', namely
           the dbm system. dbm lets you store data in files, and retrieve
           that data quickly. However, it also has serious drawbacks.

               File Locking

               The dbm systems did not allow particularly robust file locking
               capabilities, nor any capability for correcting problems arising through
               simultaneous writes [ to the database ].

               Arbitrary Data Structures

               The dbm systems only allows a single fixed data structure:
               key-value pairs. That value could be a complex object, such as a
               [ C ] struct, but the key had to be unique. This was a large
               limitation on the usefulness of dbm systems.

           However, dbm systems still provide a useful function for users with
           simple datasets and limited resources, since they are fast, robust and
           extremely well-tested. Perl modules to access dbm systems have now
           been integrated into the core Perl distribution via the
           AnyDBM_File module.''

       To sum up, DBM is a perfectly satisfactory solution for
       essentially read-only databases, or small and simple
       datasets. However, for more scaleable dataset handling,
       not to mention robust transactional locking, users are
       recommended to use a more powerful database engine via

       Chapter 2 of "Programming the Perl DBI" discusses DBM
       files in detail.

       3.7 What database do you recommend me using?

       This is a particularly thorny area in which an objective
       answer is difficult to come by, since each dataset, pro-
       posed usage and system configuration differs from person
       to person.

       From the current author's point of view, if the dataset is
       relatively small, being tables of less than 1 million
       rows, and less than 1000 tables in a given database, then
       mSQL is a perfectly acceptable solution to your problem.
       This database is extremely cheap, is wonderfully robust
       and has excellent support. More information is available
       on the Hughes Technology WWW site at:


       You may also wish to look at MySQL which is a more power-
       ful database engine that has a similar feel to mSQL.


       If the dataset is larger than 1 million row tables or 1000
       tables, or if you have either more money, or larger
       machines, I would recommend Oracle RDBMS.  Oracle's WWW
       site is an excellent source of more information.


       Informix is another high-end RDBMS that is worth consider-
       ing. There are several differences between Oracle and
       Informix which are too complex for this document to
       detail. Information on Informix can be found on their WWW
       site at:


       In the case of WWW fronted applications, mSQL may be a
       better option due to slow connection times between a CGI
       script and the Oracle RDBMS and also the amount of
       resource each Oracle connection will consume. mSQL is
       lighter resource-wise and faster.

       These views are not necessarily representative of anyone
       else's opinions, and do not reflect any corporate sponsor-
       ship or views. They are provided as-is.

       3.8 Is insert feature here> supported in DBI?

       Given that we're making the assumption that the feature
       you have requested is a non-standard database-specific
       feature, then the answer will be no.

       DBI reflects a generic API that will work for most
       databases, and has no database-specific functionality.

       However, driver authors may, if they so desire, include
       hooks to database-specific functionality through the
       "func()" method defined in the DBI API.  Script developers
       should note that use of functionality provided via the
       "func()" methods is very unlikely to be portable across

Programming Questions
       4.1 Is DBI any use for CGI programming?

       In a word, yes! DBI is hugely useful for CGI programming!
       In fact, I would tentatively say that CGI programming is
       one of two top uses for DBI.

       DBI confers the ability to CGI programmers to power WWW-
       fronted databases to their users, which provides users
       with vast quantities of ordered data to play with. DBI
       also provides the possibility that, if a site is receiving
       far too much traffic than their database server can cope
       with, they can upgrade the database server behind the
       scenes with no alterations to the CGI scripts.

       4.2 How do I get faster connection times with DBD::Oracle
       and CGI?

           Contributed by John D. Groenveld

       The Apache "httpd" maintains a pool of "httpd" children to
       service client requests.

       Using the Apache mod_perl module by Doug MacEachern, the
       perl interpreter is embedded with the "httpd" children.
       The CGI, DBI, and your other favorite modules can be
       loaded at the startup of each child. These modules will
       not be reloaded unless changed on disk.

       For more information on Apache, see the Apache Project's
       WWW site:


       The mod_perl module can be downloaded from CPAN via:


       4.3 How do I get persistent connections with DBI and CGI?

           Contributed by John D. Groenveld

       Using Edmund Mergl's Apache::DBI module, database logins
       are stored in a hash with each of these "httpd" child. If
       your application is based on a single database user, this
       connection can be started with each child.  Currently,
       database connections cannot be shared between "httpd"

       Apache::DBI can be downloaded from CPAN via:


       4.4 ``When I run a perl script from the command line, it
       works, but, when I run it under the "httpd", it fails!''

       Basically, a good chance this is occurring is due to the
       fact that the user that you ran it from the command line
       as has a correctly configured set of environment vari-
       ables, in the case of DBD::Oracle, variables like "ORA-

       The "httpd" process usually runs under the user id of
       "nobody", which implies there is no configured environ-
       ment. Any scripts attempting to execute in this situation
       will correctly fail.

       One way to solve this problem is to set the environment
       for your database in a "BEGIN { }" block at the top of
       your script. Another technique is to configure your WWW
       server to pass-through certain environment variables to
       your CGI scripts.

       Similarly, you should check your "httpd" error logfile for
       any clues, as well as the ``Idiot's Guide To Solving Perl
       / CGI Problems'' and ``Perl CGI Programming FAQ'' for fur-
       ther information. It is unlikely the problem is

       The ``Idiot's Guide To Solving Perl / CGI Problems'' can
       be located at:


       as can the ``Perl CGI Programming FAQ''. Read BOTH these
       documents carefully!

       4.5 How do I get the number of rows returned from a
       "SELECT" statement?

       Count them. Read the DBI docs for the "rows()" method.

Miscellaneous Questions
       5.1 Can I do multi-threading with DBI?

       Perl version 5.005 and later can be built to support
       multi-threading.  The DBI, as of version 1.02, does not
       yet support multi-threading so it would be unsafe to let
       more than one thread enter the DBI at the same time.

       It is expected that some future version of the DBI will at
       least be thread-safe (but not thread-hot) by automatically
       blocking threads intering the DBI while it's already in

       For some OCI example code for Oracle that has multi-
       threaded "SELECT" statements, see:


       5.2 How do I handle BLOB data with DBI?

       Handling BLOB data with the DBI is very straight-forward.
       BLOB columns are specified in a SELECT statement as per
       normal columns. However, you also need to specify a maxi-
       mum BLOB size that the database handle can fetch
       using the "LongReadLen" attribute.

       For example:

           ### $dbh is a connected database handle
           $sth = $dbh->prepare( "SELECT blob_column FROM blobby_table" );

       would fail.

           ### $dbh is a connected database handle
           ### Set the maximum BLOB size...
           $dbh->{LongReadLen} = 16384;        ### 16Kb...Not much of a BLOB!

           $sth = $dbh->prepare( "..." );

       would succeed provided no column values were larger
       than the specified value.

       If the BLOB data is longer than the value of "Lon-
       gReadLen", then an error will occur. However, the DBI pro-
       vides an additional piece of functionality that will auto-
       matically truncate the fetched BLOB to the size of "Lon-
       gReadLen" if it is longer. This does not cause an error to
       occur, but may make your fetched BLOB data useless.

       This behaviour is regulated by the "LongTruncOk" attribute
       which is defaultly set to a false value ( thus making
       overlong BLOB fetches fail ).

           ### Set BLOB handling such that it's 16Kb and can be truncated
           $dbh->{LongReadLen} = 16384;
           $dbh->{LongTruncOk} = 1;

       Truncation of BLOB data may not be a big deal in cases
       where the BLOB contains run-length encoded data, but data
       containing checksums at the end, for example, a ZIP file,
       would be rendered useless.

       5.3 How can I invoke stored procedures with DBI?

       The DBI does not define a database-independent way of
       calling stored procedures.

       However, most database that support them also provide a
       way to call them from SQL statements - and the DBI cer-
       tainly supports that.

       So, assuming that you have created a stored procedure
       within the target database, eg, an Oracle database, you
       can use $dbh->"do()" to immediately execute the procedure.
       For example,

           $dbh->do( "BEGIN someProcedure; END;" );   # Oracle-specific

       You should also be able to "prepare" and "execute", which
       is the recommended way if you'll be calling the procedure

       5.4 How can I get return values from stored procedures
       with DBI?

           Contributed by Jeff Urlwin

           $sth = $dbh->prepare( "BEGIN foo(:1, :2, :3); END;" );
           $sth->bind_param(1, $a);
           $sth->bind_param_inout(2, \$path, 2000);
           $sth->bind_param_inout(3, \$success, 2000);

       Remember to perform error checking, though! ( Or use the
       "RaiseError" attribute ).

       5.5 How can I create or drop a database with DBI?

       Database creation and deletion are concepts that are
       entirely too abstract to be adequately supported by DBI.
       For example, Oracle does not support the concept of drop-
       ping a database at all! Also, in Oracle, the database
       server essentially is the database, whereas in mSQL, the
       server process runs happily without any databases created
       in it. The problem is too disparate to attack in a worth-
       while way.

       Some drivers, therefore, support database creation and
       deletion through the private "func()" methods. You should
       check the documentation for the drivers you are using to
       see if they support this mechanism.

       5.6 How can I "commit" or "rollback" a statement with DBI?

       See the "commit()" and "rollback()" methods in the DBI

       Chapter 6 of "Programming the Perl DBI" discusses transac-
       tion handling within the context of DBI in more detail.

       5.7 How are "NULL" values handled by DBI?

       "NULL" values in DBI are specified to be treated as the
       value "undef".  "NULL"s can be inserted into databases as
       "NULL", for example:

           $rv = $dbh->do( "INSERT INTO table VALUES( NULL )" );

       but when queried back, the "NULL"s should be tested
       against "undef".  This is standard across all drivers.

       5.8 What are these "func()" methods all about?

       The "func()" method is defined within DBI as being an
       entry point for database-specific functionality, eg, the
       ability to create or drop databases. Invoking these
       driver-specific methods is simple, for example, to invoke
       a "createDatabase" method that has one argument, we would

           $rv =$dbh->func( 'argument', 'createDatabase' );

       Software developers should note that the "func()" methods
       are non-portable between databases.

       5.9 Is DBI Year 2000 Compliant?

       DBI has no knowledge of understanding of what dates are.
       Therefore, DBI itself does not have a Year 2000 problem.
       Individual drivers may use date handling code internally
       and therefore be potentially susceptible to the Year 2000
       problem, but this is unlikely.

       You may also wish to read the ``Does Perl have a Year 2000
       problem?'' section of the Perl FAQ at:


Support and Training
       The Perl5 Database Interface is FREE software. IT COMES

       However, some organizations are providing either technical
       support or training programs on DBI. The present author
       has no knowledge as to the quality of these services. The
       links are included for reference purposes only and should
       not be regarded as recommendations in any way.  Caveat

       Commercial Support

       The Perl Clinic
           The Perl Clinic provides commercial support for Perl
           and Perl related problems, including the DBI and its
           drivers.  Support is provided by the company with whom
           Tim Bunce, author of DBI and DBD::Oracle, works and
           ActiveState. For more information on their services,
           please see:



       Westlake Solutions
           A hands-on class for experienced Perl CGI developers
           that teaches how to write database-connected CGI
           scripts using Perl and  This course, along
           with four other courses on CGI scripting with Perl, is
           taught in Washington, DC; Arlington, Virginia; and on-
           site worldwide upon request.



           for more details.

Other References
       In this section, we present some miscellaneous WWW links
       that may be of some interest to DBI users. These are not
       verified and may result in unknown sites or missing docu-


       Alligator Descartes http://www.symbol->.  Portions are Copyright
       their original stated authors.

       This document is Copyright (c)1994-2000 Alligator
       Descartes, with portions Copyright (c)1994-2000 their
       original authors. This module is released under the
       'Artistic' license which you can find in the perl distri-

       This document is Copyright (c)1997-2000 Alligator
       Descartes. All rights reserved.  Permission to distribute
       this document, in full or in part, via email, Usenet, ftp
       archives or http is granted providing that no charges are
       involved, reasonable attempt is made to use the most cur-
       rent version and all credits and copyright notices are
       retained ( the AUTHOR and COPYRIGHT sections ).  Requests
       for other distribution rights, including incorporation
       into commercial products, such as books, magazine articles
       or CD-ROMs should be made to Alligator Descartes>.

perl v5.6.1                 2001-08-25                DBI::FAQ(3)

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